Born 1957 in Munich. Study of physics Munich Univ., Zurich/Switzerland (Diplom 1984), and Cornell Univ. Ithaca/USA (1984-1989), PhD (1989), postdoc IBM Lab Rüschlikon/Switzerland (1989-1991), independent research Bell labs Murray Hill/USA (1991-1999), Director and Scientific Member at the Max Planck Institute for Medical Research (1999-2011), Honorary Professor, Faculty of Physics, Univ. of Heidelberg (since 2002). Director at the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology in Martinsried (2011-2021. Director and Scientific Member at the Max Planck Institute for Biological Intelligence, Martinsried, in foundation (since 2022).