Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics

Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics

The scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Garching work mainly on theory. A core area is the numerical simulation of astrophysical systems with high-performance and ultra-high performance computers. The research on star formation and hydrodynamic phenomena – such as colliding stars, supernova explosions or matter in accretion disks around black holes – is complemented by studies of structure formation in the Universe as a further key research field. The astrophysicists use computer simulations to model how galaxies and stars formed from primordial matter: how everything grew out of nothing. In addition, the researchers develop algorithms to analyse the vast amounts of data produced in ever-larger simulations and satellite missions.

Contact

Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1
85748 Garching
Phone: +49 89 30000-0
Fax: +49 89 30000-2235

PhD opportunities

This institute has an International Max Planck Research School (IMPRS):

IMPRS for Astrophysics

In addition, there is the possibility of individual doctoral research. Please contact the directors or research group leaders at the Institute.

The reconstruction of reality

A new software application uses artificial intelligence to calculate images of reality based on incomplete data

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Relics of the Big Bang

Astrophysicists calculate the original magnetic field in our cosmic neighbourhood.

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The universe out of the supercomputer

Computer simulations show the formation of galaxies with unprecedented precision

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Gravitational waves from merging neutron stars

This cosmic event was also observed in visible light and provides an explanation for gamma-ray bursts

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Neutrinos as drivers of supernovae

Radioactive elements in gaseous supernova remnant Cassiopeia A provide glimpses into the explosion of massive stars

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Supernovae portend cosmic catastrophes. When a massive star slides into an energy crisis at the end of its life, or a sun that has already died is overfed with matter, the end is an explosion of unimaginable proportions. What exactly happens here? Hans-Thomas Janka from the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Garching wants to get down to the nuts and bolts. He simulates supernovae on the computer and makes them explode in the virtual world – meanwhile even in three dimensions.

Gravitational waves are some of the most spectacular predictions of the 1915 general theory of relativity. However, it wasn’t until half a century later that physicist Joseph Weber attempted to track them down. In the early 1970s, Max Planck scientists also began working in this research field, and developed second-generation detectors. The groundwork laid by these pioneers meant the waves in space-time ceased to be just figments of the imagination: in September 2015 they were finally detected.

They are some of the most exotic objects in space: neutron stars. Incredibly dense and only 20 kilometers across, they rotate about their axes at breakneck speed, emitting cones of radiation out into space in the process. Some of these cosmic beacons have particularly strong magnetic fields. Michael Gabler from the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Garching studies these magnetars – and so learns a thing or two about their nature.

It is a superlative brain, and has a somewhat boastful name to reflect this: SuperMuc. “Muc” refers to Munich, which isn’t entirely correct, with the more than 100-ton computer being located outside the city limits of the Bavarian capital – in a 500-square-meter hall of the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre on the campus in Garching.

Albert Einstein predicted them, modern giant telescopes detected them: gravitational lenses. Today, researchers simulate them on the computer.

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Gravitational Wave Messengers from the very early universe

2018 Agrawal, Aniket; Komatsu, Eiichiro

Astronomy Astrophysics

Quantum vacuum fluctuations in spacetime in the very early Universe generate gravitational waves, whose probability distribution is close to a Gaussian. However, they can also be generated by other sources, and carry imprints of the energy content of the early Universe. Scientists at MPA showed that these gravitational waves can be highly non-Gaussian, with a skewness much larger than for those generated by vacuum fluctuations.

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Finding needles in a haystack

2018 Kauffmann, Guinevere

Astronomy Astrophysics

Previous studies of large AGN samples both a low and at high redshifts seemed to rule out galaxy mergers as the drivers for black hole growth. A new technique developed at MPA for selecting a rare type of active galactic nuclei now show that it is possible to identify a new class of AGN in which more than 80% of the galaxies turn out to be merging or interacting systems, with clear indications of an accreting black hole. A detailed statistical analysis then reveals that mergers drive black hole formation in the most massive galaxies in the local Universe.

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Cosmic lenses support finding on faster than expected expansion of the Universe

2017 Suyu, Sherry; Hilbert, Stefan; Yildirim, Akin

Astronomy Astrophysics

By using galaxies as giant gravitational lenses, an international group of astronomers including researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics have made an independent measurement of how fast the Universe is expanding. The newly measured expansion rate for the local Universe is consistent with earlier findings. These are, however, in intriguing disagreement with measurements of the early Universe. This hints at a fundamental problem at the very heart of our understanding of the cosmos.

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Gravitational waves and emitted light reveal merger of two neutron stars – and a kilonova

2017 Anders Jerkstrand, Hans-Thomas Janka

Astronomy Astrophysics

On 17 August 2017, two merging neutron stars were seen for the first time by their gravitational wave si  gnal as well as high-energy gamma radiation. Follow-up observations revealed optical emission powered by the radioactive decay of r-process elements - a so-called kilonova.

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Predicting the Sunyaev-Zeldovich signal from cosmological, hydro-dynamical simulations

2016 Dolag, Klaus; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Sunyaev, Rashid

Astronomy Astrophysics

Using recent, extensive cosmological simulations, researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics have shown that the expected signal from the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect of galaxy clusters on the Cosmic Microwave Background agrees remarkably well with observations by the Planck satellite. However, only a small fraction of this predicted signal is currently observable. The scientists developed a simple analytical model to understand the SZ probability distribution function, which is also helpful in interpreting the observed distribution of galaxy clusters masses.

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