Yearbook 2004

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
In scholarly debate and the public arena, the German biotech industry is considered significantly less competitive than its British counterpart. It is also thought to be funded largely by the state. A study at the Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies suggests that these assumptions are not correct. No clear difference can be made out between the competitiveness of the biotech industry in Germany and Britain. The study also shows that biotech firms in Germany are funded mostly by venture capital, much of which comes from foreign investors. State funding plays little more than a supplementary role. more

Measurement of coronal magnetic fields

Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research Curdt, Werner; Inhester, Bernd; Innes, Davina; Lagg, Andreas; Solanki, Sami K.; Wang, Tongjiang; Wiegelmann, Thomas; Woch, Joachim
The solar corona harbors gas at temperatures of more than a million degrees. This gas is predominantly trapped on arch-like structures formed by loops of magnetic field. The high temperature and the structure of the coronal gas are attributed to the solar magnetic field. The high degree of order in the corona traces back to the fact that hot gas must follow magnetic field lines. Also magnetic current sheets (“jumps” in the magnetic field) are able to release thermal energy and thus heat the gas. The measurement of coronal magnetic fields is, however, not trivial: the low gas density leads to a weak signature in the spectral lines, i.e. the splitting and polarization caused by the Zeeman-effect. Also, with increasing distance from the solar surface, an effect starts to operate which influences the polarization of the absorbed light. The Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in Katlenburg-Lindau (MPS) successfully contributed to the solution of this difficult problem of measuring the coronal magnetic field. Two different methods of direct measurement of the magnetic field have been applied: coronal seismology and infrared polarimetry. In addition, based on mathematical models it is possible to infer the coronal magnetic field structure from extrapolations of the reliably determined photospheric magnetic field. more

Interplay of Electrons in Metal-Rich Compounds

Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research Simon, Arndt; Ryazanov, Mikhail; Mattausch, Hansjürgen; Kremer, Reinhard K.
Two examples out of the extended new chemistry of metal-rich lanthanoid compounds illustrate the mutual influence of different electronic systems leading to interesting physical properties. more
Progress in high pressure research has resulted in tremendous gains in knowledge on materials behavior over a wide range of pressures. Experimental high pressure research takes advantage of numerous recent developments in diamond-anvil-cell techniques, mainly with respect to advances in analytical methods that utilize synchrotron x-ray radiation (diffraction and inelastic scattering), optical spectroscopy, and synchrotron infrared spectroscopy. Our subjects of interest range from illuminating the interplay between subtle changes in atomic arrangements, electron delocalization, magnetism, and superconductivity to fundamental questions about phase transformations, crystal structure, and the nature of interatomic bonding. Some of our recent results are briefly highlighted here. more
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