Yearbook 2017

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Economization is a basic historical process that has profoundly changed the relationships between the economy, the state, society, and individuals since the 1970s. The political power of the private sector has grown, and the terminology, self-images, goals, and yardsticks of economics have become increasingly predominant. Only if we know about such basic historical developments we can understand the forces driving the world around us today and imagine what options are available for influencing future developments. more
Enabling engineers and programmers to automatically verify the correctness of the computer systems that they design is one of the Grand Challenges of computer science. The Foundations of Algorithmic Verification group focuses on a series of fundamental algorithmic problems for dynamical systems, with the overarching goal of offering a systematic exact computational treatment of various important classes of such systems and other fundamental models used in mathematics, computer science, and the quantitative sciences. more

Solar variability and climate

Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research Krivova, Natalie; Yeo, Kok Leng; Solanki, Sami K.; Wu, Chi-Ju
The Sun supplies Earth with light and warmth. It is an unfailing but not fully constant energy source. About 40 years of space-based monitoring of solar irradiance revealed its variations on all time scales that have ever been observed (minutes to decades). The variability on time scales of about a day or longer is driven by the restless solar magnetic field. Knowing how the surface magnetic field changed in the past, it is possible to reconstruct variations in the solar brightness. more
Compared with transistors based on inorganic semiconductors, organic transistors can be fabricated at much lower temperatures of about 100 degrees Celsius. This makes it possible to manufacture electronic systems on a variety of unconventional substrates, such as plastics, paper and textiles. As this type of electronic systems is of interest for mobile applications, it is critical that the transistors and circuits can be operated at very low supply voltages. We have therefore developed an ultra-thin gate dielectric that reduces the required supply voltage to 0.7 Volt. more
In superconductors, a collective excitation of Cooper pairs exists which is known as the Higgs mode. If the system is excited out of equilibrium, Higgs oscillations can arise. From these, properties of the superconducting energy gap can be deduced. In conventional superconductors the system oscillates with a frequency corresponding to two times the energy gap. In the case of unconventional superconductors multiple Higgs modes can arise. As a consequence, Higgs oscillations can serve as a spectroscopic method to retrieve information about the symmetry of the energy gap. more
Superconductors at very low temperatures show the remarkable property of being able to conduct electrical current without any resistance. However, the use of these materials in everyday life applications is severely limited by the need for cooling to at least minus 70 degrees Celsius. In carbon-based molecules, irradiation with intense mid-infrared laser light has now enabled to induce a short-lived transient superconducting state at higher temperatures. The knowledge gained might help in the development of materials that become superconducting at significantly higher temperatures. more
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