The conversion of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2
) into organic compounds is a key process in the global carbon cycle. In the past years, several novel pathways and enzymes for the conversion of CO2
were discovered in microorganisms. In parallel to these discoveries, new approaches were followed by using the methods of synthetic biology to establish artificial pathways for the fixation of CO2
that are more efficient compared to naturally existing CO2
-fixation pathways. Synthetic CO2
-fixation could pave the way towards novel applications in biotechnology and nanotechnology.